Selection of Existing Resources and Recommendations
The purpose of this selection was to ensure that the current project developed from what had already been done by other stakeholders, and was complementary to those initiatives. This selection is the result of a stock-taking of resources and recommendations that were considered most useful for the implementation of inclusive strategies for history and citizenship education. The results of the selection of existing resources should serve educators who are currently teaching history and citizenship education, or work as teacher trainers or students who study to become a teacher in the mentioned fields. The target group was not limited to educators who are only involved in special needs education, but cover a wide range of educators working with students with diverse needs, competencies and background. The selection of resources is in English language, and contributions address a variety of issues such as teacher education, classroom practice, school environment, pedagogy and didactics.
The purpose of this assessment was to ensure that the educational resource developed in the project met the needs of educators who are directly involved in teaching and learning of inclusive history and citizenship education and provide insight for policy recommendations. Collected inputs aimed to provide better understanding on what real barriers to learning history and citizenship are from the point of view of educators, ensure that educational resources developed in the project met the need of students and educators. The results of selection of existing resources targeted educators currently working as history and citizenship educators. The output represents views of inclusive practitioners of both integrated and specialised schools and educators teaching students with diverse learning needs. Needs assessment involved opinion of 193 educators from 33 countries. Inputs were geographically, and gender balanced and relevant for history and citizenship education. Considering the characteristics of the target population in this study a convenience sampling was employed being the participant teachers those who volunteered to respond to the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 28 closed questions and one opened, written in English.
Collection of Practices
The purpose of this documentation was to find out more what was currently done in terms of making history and citizenship education more inclusive and accessible, and make sure that the proposed project was making best use of these practices, and complemented them. The collection aimed to help educators to learn from the real life experience of colleagues, and help them to think strategically and consider adapting the practices to their own contexts. The collection of practices resulted in detailed information about the use of strategies for inclusion and how it may be adapted to various educational contexts. Each documented item helps to understand how the strategy was actually implemented, what factors influenced its use, and what challenges were encountered during its implementation. The interviews were part of a collection of practices where educators, professionals and scholars that have been involved with inclusive education were interviewed. The collection includes examples of strategies used to promote high-quality history and citizenship education amongst students and with students who are blind or partially sighted or Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing and who have motivation and learner variability challenges. Click here to find the full collection of practices.
The educational resources developed in the project were designed to help educators implement high-quality history and heritage education to all learners, including those with special needs. This intellectual output consists in ready-to-use educational resources, learning activities and teacher’s guide on how make history and citizenship education inclusive and accessible. The purpose of the development of educational resources was to provide tools that educators can use to ensure that their teaching is not only of high quality, but also inclusive and accessible. The development, piloting and peer-review helped to build the competence of the educators involved, to identify obstacles to learning, and challenged the project team to find solutions to remove these obstacles. The educational resources were developed in English, but each project partner was enabled to select 3 learning activities that they found most relevant and applicable to their own national context. The learning activities that were selected by the project partner have been translated into their national languages (e.g. Armenian, Dutch, Norwegian, Portuguese and Slovenian). All the learning activities developed in the project are open source and available for download on Historiana. To see all the activities, just type Strategies for Inclusion on the research bar of the Teaching&Learning page on the Historiana eLearning Environment. Click here to find the learning activities.
The purpose of the policy recommendations was to formulate concrete steps that may be undertaken at national levels of curriculum development in history and citizenship education in order to make this education accessible for all kinds of students. The target group were those people in each country that were able to influence the educational system. The recommendations were based on the selection of existing resources, the needs assessment, documented practices and the lessons learned in developing educational resources in the project and during the project meetings. To enhance the practical impact of the recommendations, they have been written in English and Dutch and then translated into 22 national languages. On the one hand, this implied that they had to be concise and purposeful. On the other hand, they had to be general enough to be adaptable to multiple national education contexts. We assume that teaching and learning history and citizenship are characterized by specific difficulties which stand out among the difficulties and obstacles to learning that education in general involves. This means that policy recommendations had to be:
- Clear cut and concrete, to be able to result in measures that could be implemented without further elaborations or development programs.
- Generic enough to be applicable to a multiplicity of different national contexts.
- Specific to obstacles that we identify as teaching and learning problems connected with history and citizenship specifically, and not obstacles to teaching and learning in general.