Learning to Disagree

In our world today young people are increasingly influenced by social media and the information found on the internet. This exposes young people to different extremist ideologies and alternative facts. Teachers are often confronted with radical views and expected to deal with them. This project aims to aid educators in how to constructively discuss and debate these issues by exploring different aspects of an issue. The competences that students have learned through meaningful dialogue and debate at school will also enable these students to deal constructively with tensions and disagreement in their daily life.

Project Aims

To empower educators across Europe to enable students to acquire social and civic competences through debates, dialogue and discussion on contested issues as part of their formal education

Expected Outcomes

Needs Assessment

The needs assessment is designed to assess what educators need in order to help their students to acquire social and civic competences through dialogue, debate and discussion on contested issues.

Exemplar content for dialogue, debate and discussion

This intellectual output will consist of 12 sets of content that enable students and educators to have dialogue, debates and discussions on contested issues. Each set of contents will provide information on the issues at stake, the historical context, a variety of viewpoints, and questions that make students think.

Teacher's guide on dialogue, debate and discussion

The guide will help educators to apply dialogue, debate and discussion in practice. The guide will include support material for at least 12 types of dialogue, debate and discussion, including information that educators can use on which type works best in which context, and will be available in 12 languages.

Teachers guide on assessing social and civic competences

The guide will include descriptions of the competences, aligned with various international documents, including the Council of Europe Competences for Democratic Culture (2016). It then sets out to help educators identify what competences students need to develop further, and helps educators to make clear what needs to be done in order to be competent.

Training package on how to use the educational resources

The training package will consist of a set of resources that can be used for presentations, workshops and other training elements that will help educators to use the resources developed in the project.

Policy recommendations

The policy recommendations will point out to  policy makers in what way the findings of the needs assessment  either support or contradict existing policies which facilitate a teacher’s ability to not only de-escalate tensions in the classroom but channel them into constructive dialogue, discussion and debate that in turn supports learning. They will also illustrate to what extent the exemplar content  is illustrative of the capacity of history education, including its specific methodology of multiperspectivity in fostering student’s ability to cope with a variety of viewpoints, is able to enhance in the wider learning process. Building on this, the recommendations will identify opportunities and challenges for mainstreaming this in history education. From the two guiding materials, essential elements which could be enhanced through educational policies will be highlighted.

Project Managers

Jaco Stoop
Network Coordinator, EUROCLIO - European Association of History Educators

Judith Geerling
Senior Project Manager, EUROCLIO - European Association of History Educators


Barbara Christophe

Maren Tribukait

Georg Eckert Institute

Dr Anthony Malone

Dr Majella Dempsey

Maynooth Univeristy

Helen Snelson

Mount School York

Lidija Šuica

Marko Šuica

Education for the 21st Century